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Carriage Profile of Transient Oral Bacteria among Dar es Salaam Hypertensive Patients and its Association to Hypertension

Author(s): Boaz Cairo, George Msema Bwire, Kennedy Daniel Mwambete

Background: The causes of hypertension can be either reversible and/or irreversible. Oral infections caused by transient normal flora, Porphyromonas gingivalis in particular is among the reversible factors which can directly or indirectly influence hypertension. Therefore, the study was conducted to determine the oral bacterial profile and establish an association between P. gingivalis carriage and hypertension.

Methods: A hospital based cross sectional study was conducted between January and July 2018 at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam. Oral swabs were collected and cultured in the appropriate media for isolation of bacteria. Bacterial identification was done using cultural properties and series of biochemical tests. Cramer’s V test analyzed categorical variables while Pearson correlation analyzed continous variables. Logistic regression was used in determination of Odds Ratio (OR). P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: In 120 hypertensive patients (HTP) the most isolated bacterial species were Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus by 20.6%, 18.8%and 7.1% respectively while for 50 nonhypertensive patients (NHTP) were 9.4%, 8.2% and 2.9% for S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae and S. aureus respectively. The prevalence of P. gingivalis was 10.6% in HTP and 1.2% in NHTP (p < 0.05). There was no significant association between harbouring P. gingivalis and hypertension (OR = 4.2; 95%CI = 0.944 -18.993; p = 0.130).

Conclusions: Hypertensive patients exhibit high oral carriage of transient bacteria especially P. gingivalis as compared to non-hypertensive individuals. However, there was no association between P. gingivalis carriage and hypertension.

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