Background: The PICC is a central venous system inserted in the peripherally vein. The central peripheral catheter catheter system (PICC=peripherally inserted central catheters) is a widely used procedure in clinical practice by medical and nurse team. PICC has potential complications that are rare but not entirely irrelevant. It is used for continuous and discontinuous treatment and, after a correct insertion procedure, it can be used for a period of time between 1 week to 3 months. The last-generation dispositive has an high-biocompatibility due to the high quality of the materials (silicone or polyurethane), a total length of 40-60 cm and a diameter between 16 to 25 Gauge or 2 to 5 French.
Aims: The aim of our study is to evaluate the trombotic risk related to the positioning of the device in relation to the individual risk factors. Therefore we have elaborated the CoRaMaPicc protocol that allows, based on the preliminary data evaluation, to reduce the trombotic risk in patients with high cardiovascular risk profile.
Methods: The study has started in July 2016. We have enrolled 30 patients (18 males and 12 females with range age of 30-99 yrs and mean age of 82+13,5 yrs). Enrolled patients have Body mass Index or (BMI) with range from 16,3-26,5 Kg/mq and mean BMI value of 23,5+2,5 Kg/mq. Enrolled patients were subjected to laboratory assessment of cardiovascular risk factors like laboratory assessment of Methyl-Tetra-Hydro-Folate-Reductase or (MTHFR) and Homocysteine, Fibrinogen, D-Dimer, International Normalized Ratio (INR), Prothrombin Time (PT), activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT), Platelets (PLT), trombotic risk evaluation (CHA2DS2-VASc Score), and bledding risk evaluation (HAS-BLED Score). Before the insertion procedure of the PICC, single or duble lumen (Groshong or Power PICC type), the patient were subjected to a preliminary ultrasound and echo-doppler vein evaluation to underline the presence of atipical anatomical state of the patients veins. After the procedure the patients were subjected to second ultrasound and echo-doppler vein evaluation and then to a radiographic examination to verify the correct position of the PICC. All patients were enrolled for follow- Up to evaluate trombotic complications. Statistical analysis was performed using the Survival Analysis test to evaluate the patients during the follow-up period in relation to thrombotic events. The data obtained from our study have been described taking also into account the data present in the international literature.
Setting: The study was performed using a specific setting in a room of the Internal Medicine Department of the Alfredo Fiorini Hospital (Terracina, Italy), guarantee an aseptic procedure , the right comfort for the patients and the appropriate privacy.
Discussion: More data in the literature underline the presence of non-eliminable risk factors like anatomic state of the patients vein that can play a variable role of procedural risk factor and can predispose to procedural or post-procedural complication after the implantation procedure. In specific cases it is difficult to asses an echo-doppler examination of heart for meteorism or ascites and radiographic exams for the presence of pleural effusion. The CoRaMaPiCC protocol use different technique to explore the post-insertion period and the follow-up time at 12 week. In case of meteorism or ascites the ultrasound examination of the heart cameras was replaced by the radiographyc evaluation while in case of pleural effusion, the evaluation of the device position was deduced using the only ultrasound approach (when the vein system is explorable). Procedural algorithm utilized in our implant protocol allows to improve the diagnostic capabilities of the conditions that can predispose to thrombotic complications. During the study period (1 year), the PICCs were removed for death (7 patients; 4 patients for irreversible heart disease, 1 patient for cardiogenic shock 1 patient for septic shock and 1 patient for Creutzfeld-Jacob disease), for spontaneously remotion (1 patient for low compliance of the patient) and for end of therapy (22 patients). The presence of cardiovascular risk factors alone is not sufficient for determining statistically significant changes in the thrombotic risk. As reported historically by the description of the wirkow triad, the presence of three clinical signs, and in particular the presence of endothelial damage (functio lesa) is a sine qua non condition for the occurrence of thrombotic episodes.
Conclusion: The CoRaMaPicc protocol allows, based on the evaluation of the data, to minimize endothelial damage and therefore to reduce the incidence of the wirchof's triade related with an high trombotic risk. The data were elaborated considering the different thrombotic risk linked to the presence of the homozygous MTHR mutation responsible for the increase of homocysteine values and therefore of the further thrombotic risk. Further studies are needed to expand the number of enrolled patients and increase the follow-up period. Our data give comfortable results but further evaluation are needed to have conclusive results.
Marchitto N, Piovanello P, Giacopelli P , Teseo L, Panfilio S, Raimondi G