Dental Research and Oral Health

Open Access Journals

Research ArticleOpen Access

Analysis of Therapeutic Efficacy of Clinically Applied Varnish

Dobrinka M. Damyanova*, Radosveta Andreeva-Borisova

Department of Pediatric Dental Medicine, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University-Varna, Bulgaria

*Corresponding Author: Dobrinka M. Damyanova, Department of Pediatric Dental Medicine, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University-Varna, Bulgaria, Tel: +345885796853;

Received: 19 August 2018; Accepted: 27 August 2018; Published: 31 August 2018


Abstract:

Purpose: Our study aims to evaluate and analyze the effect of a mineralizing varnish on the progression of the initial caries of the enamel in the primary dentition.

Materials and methods: Subject of observation - there are 200 children from the city of Varna, aged 3 to 6 years, distributed equally in standardized age groups, with the same number of boys and girls. Dental caries diagnosed with d1 and d2. Units of observation: Children with high caries risk of development: A group of 100 children treated with mineralizing varnish CV; Control group of 100 children. Carious teeth with threshold d1, d2 lesions. Carious surfaces with d1, d2 lesions. After processing the results and determining the highlights, the actual study was performed by processing the data with a mathematical-statistical processing package SPSS v 20.0.

Results: The results of the comparative analysis of the therapeutic efficacy of the mineralizing varnish used-Clinpro White Varnish showed a significant difference in the percentage of effectiveness (t=- 3.68, p<0.001). Clinpro White Varnish showed better results after the application (64.58%).

Conclusion: The use of these medications may be beneficial for patients with dental caries of primary teeth from 3 to 6 years of age.


Keywords:

Primary teeth, Mineralizing Varnish, High risk of caries development, Initial Caries

Untitled Document

1. Introduction
Evidence for the onset of the caries lesion can be found in the form of various changes in the optical properties of the affected tooth structure. Karlson L, et al. [1] reports that methods for detecting caries changes in specialized optical devices are called optically based methods. The evidence for the effectiveness of fluoride varnish in temporary dentition is incomplete and unconfirmed but is successful if the recommendations for excellent oral hygiene from the following morning after clinical application with varnish and low carbohydrate diet without intermediate meals are observed [2, 3].

Petersson et al. [4] in a study found that the caries reduction from varnish application was 30% (0 to 69%). Autors found that caries reduction was 33% for temporary teeth and 46% for permanent teeth. There are two main theories related to the DIAGNOcam operating mechanism. According to the first, when infrared light reaches porosity in the dental structures, due to demineralization, fluorescence light of different wavelengths is stimulated. For DIAGNOdent pen, values increase after demineralisation of enamel from caries development. The longer the demineralisation period, the greater the increase. These data are consistent with the data obtained from the studies of autors, who report in their research that continuous drying induces an increase in measured laser fluorescence results.

It should be noted that while studies agree that DIAGNOdent can be used as a means of measuring demineralization, the data on its use as a means of measuring remineralization are contradictory. Some authors say this is useful, others like Mendes FM [5] - no. This may be due to the use of various remineralizing means, the maintenance, the type and the conditions of the conducted research.

2. Objective
Our study aims to evaluate and analyze the effect of a mineralizing varnish on the progression of the initial caries of the enamel in the temporary dentition.

3. Materials and Methods
Two hundred children from 3 to 6 years of age are attending clinical practice at UMDC - Varna were included in two groups using Clinpro White Varnish (CV) mineralization fluoride varnish and a control group. The final selection of the treated children was carried out, with children with a high risk of developing caries being selected from the 300 examined children.

3.1 Subject of observation
There are 200 children from the city of Varna, aged 3 to 6 years, distributed equally in standardized age groups, with the same number of boys and girls. Total number of carious lesions treated - 80 (reversible), on teeth and surfaces. Number of treated teeth surfaces with Clinpro White Varnish - 40. Number of tooth surfaces treated with Tooth Mousse - 40.

3.2 Criteria for inclusion of children
Clinically healthy, without general and systemic diseases, without gingival and stomatitis diseases; accompanied by parents who regularly visit our ambulatory office. The patients were divided into two groups of 100 children.The first group is treated by us, to which we apply Clinpro ? White Varnish with TCP (Tri-Calcium phosphate) (CV).
4. Materials
3M ESRE Clinpro TM White Varnish is a fluoride-based varnish designed to be applied on enamel to prevent and treat early lesions. Absorption of fluoride from varnish CV is high 696 ± 82 ?g F / cm3. The release of fluoride from varnish CV is long 50 ?g / sm2 and lasts for 25 hours. Clinpro is resistant to moisture and saliva. It spreads over wet teeth and sticks to them. It is recommended as an additional precaution to reduce the demineralisation of enamel in children with a high risk of caries every 3 months. The fluorinated varnish is applied to the reversible lesions. Its effect depends on the type of CV agent, the mode and duration of application / time period and the number of applications (4 times for one year with 3 minutes application) and the risk profile of the patient.

To compare the effectiveness of the CV varnish, we investigated the effectiveness of both varnish and Tooth Mousse paste. Aplications were performed on smooth surfaces and surfaces with lesions d1 and d2. The children in the group are treated with the mineralization fluoride varnish by the application. Replications are every 3 months, with a total duration of one year. We both standardized the two groups before the survey. Subgroups of all children aged 3 to 5 years wash their teeth with toothpaste containing 500 ppm F and "pea". Subgroups of children aged 6 years use a toothpaste containing 1000 ppm F and "pea". All children adhere to dental hygiene twice a day - morning and evening. Children have three main meals during the day and two intermediate meals with breakfast and fruit. Parents and children have received instructions from us to observe hygiene twice a day - in the morning and in the evening to wash their teeth and maintain dietary dieting without intermediate carbohydrate meals.

The reading of the lesion values of the initial caries was carried out with DIAGNOdent Pen in order for the experiment to be accurate, clear and reliable. The examinations at the beginning and every three months up to the twelfth month inclusive were conducted by specialist pediatric dentistry. The results were scored on teeth and surfaces. Prior to the clinical use of fluoride varnish and Tooth Mousse, we applied a diagnosis by laser fluorescence, with the measurements performed with DIAGNOdent Pen.

4.1 Activity and reversibility of the carious process
4.1.1 Object of observation: Dental caries diagnosed with d1 and d2.
4.1.2 Units of observation: Children with a high risk of caries development: A group of 100 children treated with mineralizing varnish CV; Control group of 100 children; Carious teeth with threshold d1, d2 lesions. Carious surfaces with d1, d2 lesions.

  1. Subject of research - diagnosis and treatment of the initial caries of the temporary teeth by the application of mineralizing varnish as a means of prevention and non-invasive treatment.
  2. Our goal is to determine the volume of active and reversible caries lesions.
  3. Material: 200 children from the city of Varna, aged 4 to 6 years old, distributed equally in standardized age groups, with the same number of boys and girls.
  4. Criteria for inclusion of children: 3 to 4 years of age, 5 and 6 years of age; healthy, accompanied by parents without systemic, gingival and oral mucosal diseases; regularly attending our ambulatory office.
  5. Method - visual diagnostic method, dental chair, mirror, lighting, water and air. Surveillance: Specialists in pediatric dentistry; Carious status: The carious status of the children was diagnosed and recorded on teeth and surfaces with a diagnostic threshold d1a.
  6. Diagnostic criteria: Criteria for activity - d1a, d1b caries lesions under the plaque, pre-location, with loss of gloss and smoothness, lack of clear boundaries;Criteria for stationary - d1a, d1b lesions - with smooth surfaces, with brilliance and clear boundaries.

4.1.3 Signs of observation: Diagnosis is also performed with a DIAGNOdent Pen instrumental test for each child and each carious lesion.
4.1.3.1 Time and place of study: Study time: 2015-2016.

4.1.3.2 Location of the survey: The survey is conducted in: 1. Faculty of Dental Medicine - Clinical Halls of DDM, Varna. 2. University Medical Center, FDM - Varna. 3. The study is authorized by the Ethics Committee of the Scientific Research at the Medical University of Varna and informed consent of each parent, respectively for each child-patient, is made.

4.1.3.3 Data Registration: Clinical cards conforming to WHO cards are made to reflect the data from the clinical study and the oral hygiene status.After processing the results and determining the highlights, the actual study was performed by processing the data with a mathematical-statistical processing package SPSS v 20.0.

5. Results
Following the application of Clinpro White Varnish on the enamel surfaces, an average reduction of 6.15 (± 2.03 SD) was found (Table 1). The results in the enamel structure are reduced by two steps after the CV application. After the remineralization, average reduced and improved values of 5.58 (± 2.04 SD) were obtained. The healthy enamel surfaces of temporary teeth with values from 0 to 3 did not show significant differences in values after the Tooth Mousse application. Surfaces with increasing values from the DIAGNOdent Pen enamel measurement showed significant differences after the Tooth Mousse application.

Dental materials Clinpro White Varnish Tooth Mousse
Indicators
Number Surfaces of primary teeth 40 40
Average decrease (in 60 min.) 6.15 ± 2.03 4.72 ± 1.39 (for 10 minutes)
Efficiency in % 64.58 ± 16.71 70.36 ± 15.94

Table 1: Changes in laser fluorescence measurements obtained for enamel after dental application.

The results of the comparative analysis of the therapeutic efficacy of the mineralizing varnish used - Clinpro White Varnish showed a significant difference in the percentage of effectiveness (t=- 3.68, p<0.001). Clinpro White Varnish showed better results after the application (64.58%) (Table 1).

Dental materials No standard coefficient β Standard coefficient β p Adjusted R2
Clinpro White Varnish 0.040 0.332 0.036 0.087
Tooth Mousse 4.342 0.380 0.016 0.122

Table 2: Dependence between the efficiency achieved and the decrease in fluorescence in the individual types of dental materials.

The results of Table 2 show that univariate regression analysis achieves a low dependence observed at Clinpro White Varnish (β=0.332) and only affects 8.70% of the change in efficacy. This result of the varnishes during the experimental period may be related to their fluorine release pattern. CV shows a high level of fluorine separation at an earlier stage of application but also shows a high level of fluorine separation during the middle and late measurement stages (high density, fast drying and waterproof). The results of the analysis are presented in Table 2.  The results of the applied varnish for the clinical treatment of lesions d1 and d2 have a statistically significant reduction in enamel demineralisation of the lesions. CV protects the enamel surface after treatment and professional prophylaxis but has greater protection in terms of reducing the depth of caries development in d2 lesions.

6. Discussion
In order to prove the effectiveness of our varnished CV, with the 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of application compared to a control group, it is important to note that the effect is only on active caries lesions because they are only reversible. A conservative, non-invasive or minimally invasive approach to the clinical management of dental caries requires diagnostic techniques capable of detecting the amount of early caries when their progression can be stopped and turned to remineralization.

The analysis of the results of our study after treatment with varnish CV shows the presence of an average pathology with a d1b diagnostic threshold for the age of 3 to 6 years. Even in primary teeth, where the time to fully detect the risk factors of the oral environment is low, the presence of reversible stages of dental caries has been proven to be a regulated process. According to Peneva M [6], if the preventive approach to the change in balance in the factors of the oral environment starts much earlier, the pathology of temporary teeth and irreversible carious lesions will be less [6]. The benefits to children's health and their psychological attitude are also significant Lertpimonchai [7, 8]. From here, we can prove that prevention and non-invasive treatment will reduce the incidence of caries pathology in a permanent dentition. Easy and painless, non-surgical treatment creates a positive attitude towards children to dental manipulations [9].

Similar results of caries reduction were obtained by other means such as gels - 1999 by Kukleva-Todorova M, other types of varnishes (Kanocolit-T), Tooth Mousse paste-2012 by Peneva M, solutions (1960-1980) etc. [6]. Varnishes have been applied and scientifically tested in rats as well. They were also studied in the USA- 1990, in Brazil- 1975, 2012 and others [10]. The results of other authors conducting research with varnishes are presented on the Table 3.

Authors Own Study
Damyanova
2015
Marinho et al.
2005
Tewati et al.
1991
Seppa et al.
1987
Similarly,
Koch et al.
1979
Rs (Caries
Reduction)
64.58% 46% 74% 21% 30%
Meta-analyzes of 15 clinical studies Rs=38% for primary dentition, to Rs=46% for permanent dentition. Only one clinical
study found that fluoride varnish was effective in remineralisation of active enamel
lesions in primary dentition [11].

Table 3: The authors' results investigated the effectiveness of fluorine varnishes.

7. Conclusion
The use of these medications may be beneficial for patients with dental caries of primary teeth from 3 to 6 years of age. Mineralizing varnish is a healing agent that can achieve greater efficacy (64.58%) due to the content of tricalcium phosphate fluoride.

Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Karlson L. Caries detection methods based on chages in optical properties Between healthy and carious tissue. Int J Dent (2010): 270729.
  2. Promoting oral health through fluoride Adopted by the FDI General Assembly: August 2017, Madrid, Spain. Int Dent J 68 (2018):16-17.
  3. Naaman R, El-Housseiny AA, Alamoudi N. The Use of Pit and Fissure Sealants-A Literature Review. Dent J (Basel) 115 (2017): pii: E34.
  4. Petersen PE. Challenges to improvement of oral health in the 21st century--the approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme. Int Dent J 54  (2004): 329-343.
  5. Mendes FM, Nicolau J, Duarte DA. Evaluation of the effectiveness of laser fluorescence in Monitoring  in vitro remineralization of incipient caries lesions in primary teeth. Car Res 37 (2003): 442-444.
  6. Peneva M, Rashkova M, Doychinova L. Age distribution of caries lesions in children,s Permanent  teeth-a basis for the choice of a therapeutic solution. J of IMAB 13 (2007): 58-60.
  7. Lertpimonchai A, Rattanasiri S, Arj-Ong Vallibhakara S, et al. The association between oral hygiene and periodontitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int Dent J 67 (2017): 332-343.
  8. Dorfer C, Benz C, Aida J, Campard G. The relationship of oral health with general health and NCDs: A Brief Review. Int Dent J 67 Suppl 2 (2017): 14-18.
  9. Konstantinova D, Dimova M, Naydenova D. Impact of food preferences on the development of pathological changes in the masticatory apparatus in young patients. J of IMAB 22 (2016): 1230-1234.
  10. Pagamelli APD, Constante HM, Sala FS, et al. Trends in dental caries rates over 45 years (1971-2016) among schoolchildren in Florian?polis, southern Brazil. Int Dent J 68 (2018): 47-53.
  11. Guelmann M. Fluoride Varnish Application: Not Always Effective in Public Health Trials. J Evid Based Dent Pract 8 (2008): 87-88.

Citation: Dobrinka M. Damyanova, Radosveta Andreeva-Borisova. Analysis of Therapeutic Efficacy of Clinically Applied Varnish. Dental Research and Oral Health 2 (2018): 022-028.

 

News & Announcements

Fortune Journals follows COPE Guidelines

COPE