International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology (ISSN: 0976-4550) is an Open Access peer-reviewed journal publishes articles quartely and supports researchers by publishing the highest quality scientific papers to promote all fields of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Sciences like Analytical techniques, Agri-Biotechnology, Agricultural Sciences, Analytical Chemistry, BA/BE Studies, Bioanalytical Chemistry, Biochemistry, Bioinformatics, Biopharmaceutics, Biotechnology, Botany, Cell and Tissue Cultures Cell Biology, Chemiinformatics, Clinical Research, Cytology, Drug discovery, Environmental Chemistry, Enzymology, Fermentation technology, Food Chemistry, Genetics, Hydrology, Immunology, Industrial Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Nanotechnology, Natural Chemistry, Neurobiology, Novel Drug delivery systems, Nuclear Pharmacy, Nutrition, Organic & Inorganic Chemistry, Pathology, Pharmaceutics, Pharmacogenomics, Pharmacognosy, Pharmacology, Pharmacy Practice, Physical Chemistry, Phyto Chemistry, Plant & Animal Physiology, Plant Pathology & Entomology, Polymer Chemistry, Proteomics & Genomics, QC/QA, Seed Technology, Soil Chemistry, Synthetic Chemistry, Zoology.
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An analytical technique is a method which is used to determine the concentration of a chemical compound or element. A wide variety of techniques used for analysis, from simple weighing (gravimetric analysis) to titrations (titrimetric) to very advanced techniques using highly specialized instrumentation.
Agricultural science is a multidisciplinary field of biology that covers all the parts of exact, natural, economic and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture. Agricultural sciences include research and development on: Plant Breeding and Genetics, Plant Pathology, Horticulture, Soil Science, Entomology, Production techniques, etc.
Analytical Chemistry provides the information about the studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter. In practice, separation, identification or quantification may constitute the entire analysis or be combined with another method. Separation isolates analytes. Qualitative analysis identifies analytes, while quantitative analysis determines the numerical amount or concentration.
Biochemistry is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. Biochemical processes give rise to the complexity of life. It is a sub-discipline of biology and chemistry, biochemistry can be divided in three fields; molecular genetics, protein science and metabolism.
Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that creates strategies and programming devices for understanding biological information. As an interdisciplinary science field, bioinformatics combines science, information engineering, statistics and mathematics to examine and describe biological information. Bioinformatics has been utilized for in silico examinations of biological inquiries which employ mathematical and statistical schemes. Bioinformatics is both an umbrella term for the collection of biological investigations that utilize PC programming as a component of their approach, and in addition a reference to explicit examination "pipelines" those are recursively utilized, especially in the field of genomics.
A biopharmaceutical otherwise called biological medicinal item, biological, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical medication item produced in, extricated from, or semi synthesized from biological sources. Not quite the same as completely synthesized pharmaceuticals, they incorporate immunizations, blood, blood segments, allergenic, substantial cells, gene treatments, tissues, recombinant restorative protein, and living cells utilized in cell treatment. Biologics can be made out of sugars, proteins, or nucleic acids or complex mixes of these elements, or living cells or tissues.
Biotechnology is the wide zone of biology including living systems and living beings to create or make items, or "any innovative application that utilizes biological systems, living life forms, or subsidiaries thereof, to make or alter items or procedures for explicit utilization". Depending on the devices and applications, it regularly covers with the (related) fields of atomic science, bio-engineering, biomedical designing, bio manufacturing, molecular engineering, and so on. For a great many years, mankind has utilized biotechnology in horticulture, food development, and medicine. Biotechnology has extended to incorporate new and various sciences, for example, genomics, recombinant gene strategies, immunology, and improvement of pharmaceutical treatments and analytic tests.
Botany (plant science or phytology) is the study of vegetation and a part of biology. A botanist, plant researcher or phytologist is a researcher who has some expertise in this field. Traditionally, botany has additionally incorporated the investigation of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists individually. The term botany in modern time is a wide, multidisciplinary subject with contributions from most different regions of science and innovation. Research subjects incorporate the investigation of plant structure, development and separation, generation, biochemistry and essential digestion, synthetic items, development, illnesses, transformative connections, systematics, and plant taxonomy.
Cell biology (cytology) is the science of biology that examines the structure and working of the cell, which is the essential unit of life. Cell biology is associated with physiological properties, metabolic procedures, signaling pathways, life cycle, and synthetic creation and cell interactions with the environment. This is carried out on a microscopic and also on a molecular level as it incorporates prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Knowing the segments of cells and how cells function is crucial to every natural science; it is likewise fundamental for research in bio-medicinal fields, for example, cancer and various illnesses. Research in cell biology is firmly associated with genetics, organic chemistry, molecular biology, immunology and cytochemistry.
Cheminformatics (chemical informatics) is the utilization of computer and informational strategies connected to a scope of issues in the area of chemistry. These in silico strategies are utilized, for instance, in pharmaceutical organizations and scholastic settings in the procedure of drug discovery. These strategies can be utilized in chemical and unified enterprises in different alternative structures. Cheminformatics consolidates the logical working fields of chemistry, computer science and data science for instance in the field of topology, chemical diagram hypothesis, data recovery and information mining in the compound space. Cheminformatics can likewise be connected to analysis of data for different industries like paper and pulp, dyes and such partnered ventures.
Drug discovery is the procedure by which new competitor drugs are found in the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology. Verifiably, drugs were found through recognizing the dynamic fixing from customary cures or by fortunate revelation. Later chemical libraries of synthetic small molecules, natural products or extracts were screened in flawless cells or entire life forms to distinguish substances that have an alluring restorative impact in a procedure called classical pharmacology. Drug discovery is performed by pharmaceutical organizations, with research help from colleges. The "final result" of drug discovery is a patent on the potential medication. The medication requires exceptionally costly Phase I, II and III clinical preliminaries, and a large portion of them fizzle. Small organizations have a basic job, regularly then selling the rights to bigger organizations that have the assets to run the clinical preliminaries.
Environmental chemistry is the scientific branch of the chemical and biochemical development that take place in natural environments. Environmental chemistry ought not to be mistaken for green chemistry, which looks to decrease potential contamination at its source. Environmental chemistry can be characterized as the investigation of the sources, responses, transport, impacts, and destinies of chemical species noticeable all around, soil, and water environments; and the impact of human movement and organic action on these. Environmental chemistry is an interdisciplinary science that incorporates atmospheric, oceanic and soil science, and additionally intensely depending on diagnostic science and being identified with environmental and different zones of science.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts that quicken chemical responses. The atoms whereupon enzymes may act are known as substrates and the enzyme converts the substrates into various particles called products. All metabolic procedures in the cell require enzyme catalysis with the end goal to happen at rates quick enough to continue life. Metabolic pathways rely on enzymes to catalyze each step. The scientific study of enzymes is called enzymology. Enzymes are known to catalyze in excess of 5,000 biochemical response types. Most enzymes are proteins, despite the fact that few are reactant RNA atoms.
Food chemistry is the science of chemical procedures and combination of all natural and non-natural elements of foods. The biological substances incorporate products such as meat, poultry, lettuce, beer, and milk. Food chemistry is same as biochemistry in its primary parts, for example, sugars, lipids, and protein, yet it also incorporates such items as water, nutrients, minerals, chemicals, nourishment added substances, flavors, and hues. Food chemistry additionally incorporates how items change under certain food processing schemes and routes either to upgrade i.e., encourage fermentation of dairy products with microorganisms that convert lactose to lactic acid or to prevent them from occurring i.e., stopping the caramelizing on the surface of newly cut apples utilizing lemon juice or other acidulated water.
Genetics is the scientific study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living beings. Gregor Mendel (scientist who discovered genetics) considered "trait inheritance", designs in the manner in which attributes are passed on from guardians to posterity. The scientist noticed that life forms (pea plants) acquire characteristics by method of discrete "molecular inheritance". This term is still utilized today as gene. Genetics includes various subfields such as epigenetics and population genetics. Living beings contemplated inside the expansive field span the spaces of life (archaea, microbes, and eukarya).
Hydrology is the study of the movement, dispersion, and quality of water on Earth and different planets, including the water cycle, water resources and ecological watershed sustainability. A professional of hydrology is a hydrologist, working inside the fields of earth or ecological science, physical topography, geography or civil and environmental engineering. Using different investigative strategies and logical methods, they gather and break down information to help determine water related issues like environmental protection, natural disasters, and water management. Hydrology is subdivided into surface water hydrology, groundwater hydrology (hydrogeology), and marine hydrology.
Immunology is the branch of biology that deals with the study of immune system. It is an essential branch of medical and biological sciences. The immune system protects us from infection through numerous lines of defense. Improper functioning of immune system may result in diseases like pathology, hypersensitivity reaction and cancer. Many elements of the immune system are usually cellular in nature and not related to any particular organ; however they are embedded or circulate in different tissues throughout the body.
Medicinal Chemistry is the discipline at the convergence of chemistry, particularly synthetic organic chemistry, and different other biological specialties, where they are included with design, chemical synthesis and advancement for market of pharmaceutical specialists. Compounds utilized as medications are regularly organic compounds, which are frequently isolated into the expansive classes of small organic molecules (e.g., atorvastatin, fluticasone, clopidogrel) and "biologics" (infliximab, erythropoietin, insulin glargine). Inorganic and organometallic compounds are additionally helpful as medications (e.g., lithium and platinum-based specialists, for example, lithium carbonate, cis-platin, and gallium).
Microbiology is the study of microorganisms which comprise of eukaryotes (fungi, protists) and prokaryotes (bacteria and algae). Microbiology is a subdivision of bacteriology, virology, mycology, parasitology and others. Microbiologists usually depend on tools of molecular biology like DNA sequence based identification i.e., 16s rRNA gene sequence is used for recognition of bacteria. Microbiology can be sub divided into various categories such as Microbial physiology and genetics, Veterinary microbiology, Industrial microbiology, Aero Microbiology, Food Microbiology.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the branch of nervous system. It is a multidisciplinary part of biology that consolidates physiology, life structures, molecular biology, developmental biology, cytology, mathematical modeling and psychology to comprehend the basic and emergent properties of neurons and neural circuits. The extent of neuroscience has widened over time to incorporate distinctive methodologies used to analyze the nervous system at the diverse scales and the methods utilized by neuroscientists have extended hugely, from atomic and cell investigations of individual neurons to imaging of tangible and engine undertakings in the cerebrum. Neuroscience has additionally given rise to such different disciplines as neuroeducation, neuroethics, and neurolaw.
Nuclear Pharmacy (radio pharmacy), includes development of radioactive materials for patient organization that will be utilized to analyze and treat explicit ailments in nuclear medicine. It includes the act of associating a radionuclide tracer with a pharmaceutical segment that decides the biological limitation in the patient. Radiopharmaceuticals are commonly not intended to have a restorative impact themselves, but rather there is a hazard to staff from radiation exposure and to patients from possible contamination in production. Due to these converging dangers, nuclear pharmacy is an intensely managed field.
Pathology is the study of disease that acts as a bridge between medicine and science. It depends on every form of patient care i.e., from diagnostic testing and treatment advice to utilizing cutting-edge genetic technologies and preventing disease. Pathology specialists play a crucial role in research, advancing medicine and devising new treatments to fight viruses, infections and diseases like cancer.
Proteomics is the scientific study of proteins. Proteins are indispensable parts of living beings, with numerous capacities. The term proteomics was authored in 1997, in relationship to genomics, the investigation of the genome. The proteome is the whole arrangement of proteins that is delivered or altered by a life form or system. Proteomics has empowered the recognizable proof of consistently expanding quantities of protein. This fluctuates with time and particular prerequisites, or stresses that a cell or living being undergoes. Proteomics is an interdisciplinary space that has profited extraordinarily from the hereditary data of different genome ventures, including the Human Genome Project.
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