Molecular Characterisation of Urine and Vaginal Samples and their Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern Associated with Β- Lactamases Resistance Gene
Author(s): Sonia Sethi, Rinkimishra, Vaishnavigupta, SandeepShrivastava.
Infection or inflammation of the vagina is called vaginitis. The two most common causes of vaginitis are bacterial vaginitis and Candida vaginitis. The causative organisms may be sexually transmitted or endogenous, usually by Gardnerellavaginalis and Mycoplasma hominis in combination with other anaerobes. Urinary tract infections (UTI) refer to the presence of microbial pathogens within the urinary tract and are caused by a range of pathogens but most commonly by Escherichia coli, Klebsiellapneumoniae etc. Highly increase in antibiotic- resistant among uropathogens, including ESBL producing E.coli, AmpC β-lactamase or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (e.g., New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase [NDM]) are being reported among health care unit. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is a growing concern worldwide and a major challenge by the WHO 2014. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of CTX- M gene and TEM gene and the possible role of ESBL in resistance to antibiotic. A study was conducted on a total of 100 urine and vaginal samples from Dr. B. Lal clinical laboratory and was cultured on Nutrient Agar and MacConkey agar for the detection of etiologic agents. Bacteria isolation, identification & biochemical characterization was done. Kirby-Bauer Disk Diffusion (KBDS) method was used for detection of ESBL-producing strains. A disc of Cefotaxime (30 μg) and Clavulanic acid (30 μg) were placed at a distance of 20 mm on Muller Hilton agar plate along with Imipenem(30μg), Piperacillin/Tazobactam(10μg) and Ceftazidime(30μg). The zone of inhibition generally greater than 20mm was considered as ESBL producer. Total 14 isolates were identified as ESBL producer. In order to find out the plasmid profile of these isolates, plasmid DNA isolation was done. Isolates was found to have one or more than one plasmid gene responsible for the ESBL resistance. This finding concludes that CTX-M gene is most common gene in ESBL producing isolates. It is highly recommended that antibiotic prescription should be monitored according to guideline. The prevalence of ESBL is increasing day by day and necessary steps should be taken to prevent the spread and emergence of resistance.