The Influence of IQ Levels on Clinical Features of Developmental Coordination Disorder
Author(s): Laurence Vaivre-Douret, Soukaina Hamdioui, Adriano Cannafarina
Objective: There is no study exploring the correlation between motor coordination dysfunction and high cognitive functioning. We aim to explore the influence of IQ (≥120) on clinical features of DCD.
Method: We collected data from 38 children (average age: 9 years old, 2.7 SD) with DCD based on criteria of DSM-5. Two matched groups of DCD were studied according to the IQ: 19 typical children (IQ = 90-110) and 19 HIQ-HIP children. Within this last group, we distinguished superior IQ (120-129) (HIQ), and very superior IQ (≥130) (HIP). All participants completed assessments of neuropsychological, neurovisual, and neuropsychomotor functions.
Result: We displayed less Ideomotor (IM), Visio-Spatial/Constructive (VSC)-DCD and more Mixed (MX)-DCD in HIQ-HIP compared to typical children DCD. We showed significant correlations between IM-DCD and executive functions disorders (ρ=+0.519 [95% CI, 0.163 to 0.795], p=0.001), between visuo-constructional task and VSC-DCD subtype (ρ= -0.651 [95% CI, -0.899 to -0.406], p=0.006). A statistical difference between both groups was shown in adiadochokinesia and bimanual coordination disorder in favor of typical children. There is no significant difference between HIP and HIQ. More left-handed in functional laterality was found with IQ≥130, χ2 (1)=4.571, p=0.033, [95% CI, 0.052 to 0.061].
Conclusion: Both groups displayed similar clinical features of DCD. HIQ-HIP groups have better executive functions and visio-spatial functioning than typical children with DCD but worse auditory attention and memory, and more neurological soft signs related to the high rate of MX-DCD. The findings are useful for clinical decision-making processes.