Error and Discord in Helping Alliances: How to Negotiate Patient-Provider Relations in Medical Encounters
Author(s): AC Muran, LM Lipner and JC Muran
This mini review considers patient-provider relations with regard to some of the inherent challenges providers face in their choices and interactions. It draws on diverse literatures to highlight the potential for error in decisionmaking and affective discord in human relations, including systematic biases (as well as random noise), contextual complexities, affect and emotion effects, motivational conflicts, and cultural differences. The review introduces findings and principles from psychotherapy research on rupture repair of helping alliances and concludes with some practical recommendations.