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Correlation between Proinflammatory Cytokines and Severity of COVID-19 within Palestinian Population

Author(s): Walid Basha, Zaher Nazzal, Yousef El-Hamshary, Anwar Odeh, Lama Hijjawi, Mahmoud Doden, Ahmad Musa, Saad Ruzzeh

COVID-19 was characterized by cytokine storm and endothelial dysfunction in severely ill patients. As the severity of the infection was correlated with ethnicity, this study aimed to assess the correlation between proinflammatory cytokine serum level and COVID-19 symptoms within the Palestinian population. In a cross-sectional study, serum samples of 27 non-hospitalized patients and 63 hospitalized patients SARS-CoV-2 infected patients were tested for total antibodies, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β using the ELISA test. Results showed that the most common symptoms within patients were joint pain, cough, and fever (73.3%, 69.7%, and 50%, respectively). Serum total antibodies (IGs) levels in non-hospitalized patients were higher than in hospitalized patients ((44.7 COI and 9.2 COI). TNF-α and IL-6 were lower in non-hospitalized patients than hospitalized patients (48 ± 17.9 pg/ml, 193.3 ± 350.5 pg/ml respectively). On the other hand, IFN-γ in non-hospitalized patients (1 ± 2 IU/ml) was significantly higher than hospitalized patients (0.4 ± 0.26 IU/ml). IL-1β was slightly lower in hospitalized patients (8.8 ± 13.6 pg/ml) compared to non-hospitalized patients (12.5 ± 24.5 pg/ml). Common mild symptoms of COVID-19 were negatively associated with proinflammatory cytokines serum level. In conclusion, as with other populations worldwide, IL-6 and TNF- α are playing a significant role in the complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Monitoring the two cytokines is crucial for the management and treatment of complicated consequences of COVID-19.

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