Pilot Lifestyle Intervention Effect on Lifestyle Behaviors, Psychosocial Factors, and Affect
Author(s): Mei-Wei Chang1*, Duane T. Wegener, Alai Tan, Jonathan Schaffir, Brett Worly, Katherine Strafford, Loriana Soma, Cassandra Sampsell
Background: This paper presents results of a pilot intervention effect on lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial factors, and affect among overweight or obese pregnant women.
Methods: 70 participants were randomized to the intervention or usual care group. During the 20-week intervention, participants completed a weekly online intervention module and joined individual online health coaching. Data were collected at baseline (<17 weeks gestation), 24-27 weeks gestation (T2), and 35-37 weeks gestation (T3). Lifestyle behaviors included dietary intake (caloric, fat, added sugar, fruit, and vegetable) and physical activity (PA). Psychosocial factors were autonomous motivation, self-efficacy, executive functions, and consideration of future consequences (CFC). Affect comprised stress and emotional control. Two-sample t-tests and Cohen’s d effect sizes were used to compare between group mean differences in the change from baseline to T2 and T3.
Results: At T2, intervention positively influenced fruit intake (d = 0.47), autonomous motivation for healthy eating (d = 0.36), selfefficacy for healthy eating (d = 0.25) and PA (d = 0.24), executive functions (behavior regulation, d = -0.21; metacognition, d = -0.69), and emotional control (d = 0.79). At T3, the intervention improved PA (d = 0.19), autonomous motivation for healthy eating (d = 0.33), selfefficacy for healthy eating (d = 0.50) and stress management (d = 0.62), executive functions (metacognition, d = -0.46), CFC (d = 0.25), stress (d = -0.45), and emotional control (d = 0.72).
Conclusion: The pilot intervention has positive effects on most psychosocial variables and affect in both the short and long terms.