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Prevalence and Associated Factors of Apnea in Preterm Neonates Admitted to the French Medical Institute for Mothers and Children Hospital in Kabul City: An Analytic Cross-Sectional Study

Author(s): Mansoor Aslamzai MD, Omid Faizi MD, Basir Ahmad Froogh MD and Sayed Azam Sajid MD

Introduction: Prematurity is one of the leading causes of neonatal death in Afghanistan and complicates a lot of serious problems including apnea. Although recurrent and prolong apnea of prematurity (AOP) may be directly or indirectly associated with significant adverse outcomes, there isn’t enough scientific information regarding the prevalence and Associated factors of this problem in Afghanistan, therefore, this study was performed to obtain such information.

Objective: To determine the prevalence rate and associated factors for apnea of prematurity in neonates admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the French Medical Institute for Mothers and Children Hospital, Kabul City.

Patients and Methods: This analytic cross-sectional study was conducted at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the French Medical Institute for Mothers and Children Hospital in Kabul City, Afghanistan. The study participants were preterm neonates. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 24.

Results: A total of 75 preterm newborns were enrolled in this study and the apnea of prematurity were developed in 48% of them. The prevalence of such apnea was 71.4% in extremely low birth weight preterm neonates, 47.4% in very low birth weight neonates, and 36.4% in low birth weight neonates. Based on gestational age, the prevalence rates of apnea in the early and moderate preterm neonates were 55.6% and 52.8% respectively, whilst also in late preterm neonates it was 42.8%. The apnea of prematurity appeared more prevalent in boys (54.3%) than girls (45.7%). The preterm neonates in the apnea group versus the non-apnea group had the mean birth weight of (1233.33±235.25g vs 1333.46 ±274.44g, 90%CI= -198 _ -1.4), mean maternal age of (24.78±3.68y vs 26.62 ±4.58y, 90%CI= -3.44_- 0.23) and RR of anemia (2.2, P=0.05).

Conclusion: The overall prevalence rate of AOP in preterm neonates was 48% and the highest rates were seen within extremely low birth weight and early preterm neonates. Lower neonatal birth weight, neonatal anemia and younger maternal age were found to be the associated factors for apnea of prematurity.

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