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Approved Covid-19 Vaccines and their Adverse Effects: A Narrative Review

Author(s): Moyosore Olatunde Olajuwon, Ikechukwu Okereke, Sakshi Mishra, Wajeeha Khalid, Sheheryar Sharif, Asma Nasir, Alaa Irshad, Ugochi Ojinnaka, Aliza Bukhari, Oluwasegun Shoewu, Sadaf Munir, Jasmine Kaur Sandhu, Antonia Lisseth Valle Villatoro, Belonwu Valentine Okafor, Wilson Olaotan Vaughan

COVID-19 has evolved into a global pandemic, affecting millions. An effective vaccine is the need of the hour to curb this pandemic, playing a role in increasing herd immunity, preventing severe disease, and reducing the ongoing health crisis. According to the WHO (World Health Organization) draft landscape of COVID-19 vaccines, around 64 vaccine candidates are in clinical assessment. So far, WHO has approved five vaccines; Pfizer, AstraZeneca, Johnson & Johnson, Moderna, and Sinopharm. Although vaccine technology is proposed to be safe, the adverse effects of the vaccines are not yet fully characterized. Given the importance of the vaccine in fighting this public health crisis, understanding the adverse effects of the approved COVID-19 vaccines is crucial. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding adverse events of the COVID-19 vaccines. These adverse events may include; PE (pulmonary embolism), DVT (Deep venous thrombosis), allergic reactions, CVST (cerebral venous sinus thrombosis), and GBS (Guillain-Barre Syndrome). These findings should be interpreted in light of the proven beneficial effects of the vaccine, and awareness should be spread regarding these adverse effects so that patients can seek early care.

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