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Activity of Aqueous Extract of Phyllanthus niruri Linn in 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine Induced Anaemic Rats

Author(s): Abubakar Amali Muhammad, Rukayya Bandi Ibrahim, Chika Aminu, Abdullahi Yahaya Abbas, Abubakar Kabiru, Chindo Ibrahim Bisallah

Background: Phyllanthus niruri is an annual plant that is widely used in Asia and Africa traditionally for the treatment of various ailments such as Jaundice, Asthma, Hepatitis, Flu, Dropsy, Diabetes, Malaria, Hemorrhages, Diarrhea, and Anaemia.

Objective: This study evaluates the haemotological and biochemical parameters of P. niruri in 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine-induced haemolytic anaemia in Wister rats for possible antianemic potential.

Methods: This study evaluates the Antianaemic effect of the plant extract based on haemotological and biochemical parameters and body weight in 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine-induced haemolytic anaemia in Wister rats. Extract was administered in three different doses (250, 500, and 1000 mg/ kg b.wt) of the plant extract and folic acid was used as a positive control. Haematological parameters such as PCV, Hb, RBC, WBC, MCV, MCH, Reticulocyte count were evaluated. Oxidative stress markers (MAD, catalase and SOD) and bilirubin (total and unconjugated) were also analyzed.

Results: The results showed that, PCV, Hb, RBC concentration increased significantly (P<0.001) at a dose of 500 and 1000 mg/kg b.wt respectively while no significant (P>0.05) effect was observed at a dose of 250 mg/kg b.wt. WBC, MCV, MHC and reticulocytes was decreased significantly (P<0.001) at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg b.wt while no significant (P>0.05) effect was observed at a dose of 250 mg/kg b.wt. A significant (P<0.01) decrease in MAD and bilirubin concentration and a significant (P<0.01) increase in catalase and SOD activity was seen at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg b.wt, while no significant (P>0.05) effect was observed at a dose of 250 mg/kg b.wt.

Conclusion: The results suggest that the aqueous whole plant extract of P. niruri plant is relatively safe and possesses a significant anti-anaemic property; therefore, it may be a potential lead in the discovery of drug for treatment of heamolytic anaemia.

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