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Investigation of Mexiletine Hydrochloride Binding on Transition Metal Oxide Nanoparticles by Capillary Electrophoresis

Author(s): Eman T. Elmorsi and Edward P.C. Lai

The binding affinity of pharmaceutically active compounds (PACs) onto transition metal oxide nanoparticles (TMONPs) is a physicochemical parameter that dictates their environmental bioavailability. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) was used successfully to determine the binding affinity of mexiletine hydrochloride (MEX.HCl) onto TiO2, Co3O4, or ZnO nanoparticles individually in alkaline, neutral, and acidic aqueous suspension. The binding process was modeled using linear/nonlinear kinetics and Langmuir/Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Interestingly, TiO2 nanoparticles demonstrated the highest binding affinity of 81(±1) % at pH 9.4 for MEX.HCl in the concentration range from 15 to 75 μg/mL. The maximum binding capacity (qmax) values for TiO2, Co3O4, and ZnO at pH 9.4 were 27.0, 26.4, and 25.2(±1) mg/g, respectively. MEX.HCl molecules moved inside the porous TMONPs with a binding rate ranking of linear pseudo-second order > non-linear pseudo-second order > linear pseudo-first order > non-linear pseudo-first order. The binding isotherm favors the linear Freundlich > linear Langmuir > nonlinear Freundlich > nonlinear Langmuir models. Overall, MEX.HCl binds onto heterogeneous TMONP surfaces via electrostatic interactions and coordination bonds.

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CiteScore: 2.9

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