Soil Fertility: Factors Affecting Soil Fertility, and Biodiversity Responsible for Soil Fertility
Author(s): Ansa Javed, Eeman Ali, Khansaa Binte Afzal, Asma Osman, Dr. Samreen Riaz
Nutrient enriched soil is termed as “fertile”. A fertile soil maybe natural or inherent and it can be acquired by artificial fertilizers or manures. Fertility of soil can be affected by physical, chemical or biological factors ultimately having an impact on plant growth. Nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorous, sulfur as well as carbon etc. are not taken up by plants as it is but they have to be converted into their standard forms with help of microbes and nutrient cycling. Effective management of soil nutrients is essential as it forms the basis of human existence. Fertilization supplements the soil with additional nutrients and improves soil quality, yield and profits. Soil animals play a vital part in soil structure creation by producing channels and pores, concentrating tiny soil particles into aggregates, and fragmenting and mixing organic substances throughout the soil. A positive relation between biodiversity of plants and soil fertility is observed. This relation varies according to habitats, and biotic and abiotic factors. Soil fertility is crucial for agricultural productivity sustainability. Effective soil management is implemented to ensure high productivity for economic viability and maintenance of soil fertility.