Use of Polyurethane as a Sealing Material for Frontal Bone Cavities during the Dehorning Technique in Adult Bovines
Author(s): Aguirre EGG, Larios GMC, Utrera QF, Galicia DJA, Ortíz GS, Zambrano GMA, Mancilla SC, Ramírez MA, Morales NG
The germinal button of the cornual structure is present in the males and females of the entire Bovidáe family; unlike the antlers found in species such as deer, elk and antelope, where the horns are not permanent and are branched. The already developed horns are made up of a bony nucleus that corresponds to the prolongation of the frontal bone, which internally houses the sinus, emerging from its base and growing to the tip, where it presents a thin layer of tissue with keratin deposit that externally forms the protective covering, composed of structural protein and not mineralized, as found in the nails, hooves, hair and feathers of birds . Total amputation of horns or cornuectomy, is recommended not only with aesthetic purposes, but also to avoid fractures of the bone support, due to trauma or blows, which are very painful especially when the frontal bone is overexposed (avulsion), in addition to generating infectious processes and even the formation of fissures . In intensive production units, the germinal button of the horn is normally prevented from developing by using caustic ointments, or if there is already a certain development of the horn, Barnes forceps or Liz's clasp are used, however some specimens continue to develop the cornual structure and when they reach adulthood (2 years of age onwards), the horns are already quite developed and it is only recommended aesthetic dehorning that is not very manageable because it requires a surgical procedure, preceded by good preoperative management; local anesthesia and sedation. An intraoperative that is to amputate the horns and a postoperative with the necessary care (administration of antimicrobials), as well as respecting the principles of asepsis and antisepsis . Anatomically, the horns are supplied by branches of the anterior and superficial temporal auricular artery that form the cornual artery, which emerges crossing the caudal portion of the frontal tuberosity; There is also a deep branch that runs caudally to the zygomatic process of the temporal bone and irrigates from the keratogenic rim or chorion and as well as the entire horn. Its innervation is through external branches of the V cranial nerve (Trigeminal), lacrimal nerve and zygomatic-temporal; which form the anterior auricular plexus from which the cornual nerve emerges . The cutaneoplastic amputation technique of adult bovine horns, and its variants, refers to making incisions around the horn, to form flaps, which are used to close the wound once the horn is amputated and prevent infections. The material and type of suture are variable and are mainly due to the comfort and mastery of the technique developed by the surgeon, as well as the results obtained in its performance, healing time and postoperative complications (bleeding or presence of sinusitis) . The foundation of a correct dehorning technique is to promote rapid healing by first intention, since the defect left by the amputation must be closed by using skin flaps, to protect the frontal sinus and the stump that is formed from the cornual process; thus avoiding the presentation of frontal sinusitis and hemorrhages . The cutaneoplastic amputation technique is better suited for one-year-old animals, since in older patients, where the horns are very wide, skin may be missing to close the amputation area .