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Detection of multiresistant Gram-Negative bacteria associated with the irrational disposal of Pharmaceutical Chemical Waste, establishing environmental toxic impact on aquatic ecosystems in Araruama- RJ

Author(s): Cathia Delmaschio, Priscila de Oliveira Lima Gondim., Felipe Porto, Emília Tostes Padilha Gonçalves, Fellipe de Oliveira Cabral, Yuri Vieira Faria, Grazielly Ribeiro Viana, Luciano Carvalho Rapagnã, Higor Franceschi Mota, Givaldo Viana da Silva, Gilson Viana da Silva, Ana Luiza de Mattos Guaraldi, Cassius de Souza

Chemical residues, including those of pharmaceutical origin, are disposed of irrationally and inappropriately by a large part of society in inappropriate places such as common garbage, septic tanks, rainwater networks and sewers, becoming a major environmental and social problem, exerting direct consequences on aquatic ecosystems. Different studies have established the possibility of the appearance of biological, toxic and physiological alterations in several niches of living beings that inhabit the aquatic ecosystem, mainly in fish, crustaceans and bacteria. Many of these studies also associate the emergence of bacteria from these ecosystems with resistance to antibiotics. In this way, the evidence is accompanied by the imminent urgency of measures aimed at reducing or interrupting the irrational exposure of Pharmaceutical Chemical Waste (QRF) by the population. Therefore, the objective of this work was to detect the presence of Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) with potential for human and animal colonization and/or infection in this area, analyzing their antimicrobial resistance in the tributaries of Lagoa de Araruama, in the State of Rio de Janeiro. of January. For this purpose, we collected aliquots of 50ml of water, in November 2021, in the Mataruna river, which contributes to the formation of the lagoon, in the central region of the city. In the isolation of the strains, we used selective media for Gram-negative Bacteria MacConkey Agar (AM), supplemented with 32µg/ml cephalothin, 10U/ml penicillin and 2µg/ml clindamycin. Three Swabs moistened with the aliquot taken from the pond were seeded in AM culture plates supplemented with antibiotics, then these plates were placed in an oven at a temperature of 37ºC for 48 hours. Interestingly, as a result, we found more than 20 colonies with distinct colors that grew even in the presence of different classes of antimicrobials, suggesting that they are colonies of multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria, since the MacConkey Agar medium is selective. These data reinforce the problem raised, directing that the presence of chemical agents, including the drugs in question, may be enabling the existence and strengthening of resistant GNB in the lagoon ecosystem. New tests are needed to identify and assess susceptibility to other antibiotics, as there is a possibility that some of these colonies have potential for multidrug resistance in addition to causing serious infections in humans. Therefore, society, especially the population of Araruama, needs awareness and clarification about the dangers and toxic environmental consequences of the irrational exposure of chemical substances in the marine ecosystem.

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    Masashi Emoto

  • Professor of Laboratory of Immunology
    Department of Laboratory Sciences
    Gunma University Graduate School of Health Sciences
    Gunma, Japan

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