Traditional Smoking and Personal Exposure to Particulate Matter (PM2.5) in Urban Area in Abidjan (Côte D’ivoire)
Author(s): Coulibaly M, Attoh-Toure H, Kouao AKR, Kouassi PD, Yoboue V, Tiembré I
Introduction: Traditional smoking of fish and meat using firewood is practiced at large scales in most West African cities. this activity is harmful to the fish smokers; 83% prevalence of acute respiratory conditions and 49% of spirometry abnormalities.
Methods: We used a cross-sectional approach to compare the level of personal exposure to PM2.5 in exposed persons and those who are not exposed to pollutants stemming from the artisanal smoking sites. PM2.5 concentrations were registered over 24 hours using a DC1700 Air Quality Monitoring.
Results and discussion: Our study population consisted of 252 persons; 126 exposed and 126 nonexposed. We got a PM2.5 daily average concentration of 46.88 ± 10.88 µg/m3 in exposed persons and 43 ± 7.1 µg/m3 in the nonexposed ones. This is 2.3 and 2.15 times higher than WHO guideline. The daily concentrations were caracterized by their variability. The lowest concentrations displayed between 00hrs and 05 hrs 59 a.m.; 34.8 ± 6.32 µg/m3 and 37.14 ± 8.33 µg/m3; and the highest concentrations between 6.00 a.m and 4.00 p.m.; 56.92 ± 5.92 µg/m3 and 45.35 ± 5.64 µg/m3 respectively in exposed persons in the nonexposed ones. The PM2.5 concentrations high between 6 o’clock and 4:59 p.m; in the nonexposed persons because of the road traffic but in exposed persons by the combined effects of road traffic and mainly of the artisanal smoking activities.
Conclusion: Personal exposure to fine particles helped to have an accurate scope of how pollution affects the populations. It also permitted to see that artisanal smoking adds up to PM2.5 concentration in people living in the surroundings of the smoking sites.