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Can Wastewater-based Epidemiology Tool Trace COVID-19?

Article Information

Abdolmajid Fadaei*

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran

*Corresponding Author: Abdolmajid Fadaei, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran

Received: 01 January 2021; Accepted: 02 April 2021; Published: 31 July 2021

Citation: Abdolmajid Fadaei. Can Wastewater-based Epidemiology Tool Trace COVID-19?. Journal of Environmental Science and Public Health 5 (2021): 374-378.

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Abstract

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) actions as an important device to trace the current of viruses in a population, providing opportunities to calculate their spread, genetic diversity, and geographic distribution.

Keywords

Epidemiology, COVID-19

COVID-19 articles

Article Details

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) actions as an important device to trace the current of viruses in a population, providing opportunities to calculate their spread, genetic diversity, and geographic distribution.

Wastewater systems presentation a applied approach to identify viruses disposed in the feces of a through area.

Apply a WBE approach in developing an early warning or detection system and consequent effective intervention system will need a rapid analytical method for the on-place tracing of viruses at the wastewater collection location. presently, the most direct method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 is a nucleic acid−based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, which is also a means for verification of COVID-19 patients.

Although PCR has high sensitivity and specificity, requirements for complicated sample handling in the laboratory, expert staff, and a long period of data processing and analysis are not favorable to real-time and effective monitoring of samples on site.

Researches of results showed that the applied of WBE for COVID-19 surveillance as a potential device for public safety monitoring at the population level(Table1) [1].

Conclusions and recommends of reported studies Wastewater-based epidemiology: [2-4]

  1. The virus concentration method is another essential factor that needs consideration to preferment the quality of detection of SARSCoV-2 in wastewater
  2. WBE cannot replace medical examination, it can serve to warning critical response teams to the presence of infected persons in cities, cities and specific drain areas of large metropolis regions down to the district and building mixed level.
  1. A multidisciplinary approach on a global scale is required for timely and high impact results to help society.
  1. The potentially infected patient will also benefit from paper analytical device detection SARS-CoV-2 sources with WBE, providing information for the correct and timely treatment of COVID-19.
  1. Modelling and interpretation of environmental surveillance data and identifying triggers for public health actions.
  1. The WBE approach as a possible way to monitor and supervision the prevalence of the COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2.
  1. Additional advantages to this approach (WBE) and call for a wastewater collection campaign involving national and international cooperation between environmental health, wastewater workers, and epidemiologists, aimed at preventing the spread of COVID-19.
  1. WBE is especially important in cases where there is limited capacity for clinical testing and should be improved to be used in municipal wastewater corresponding to larger communities.

We hope that the findings of the present study can help researchers, health decision-makers, policy-makers, and people for comprehension and taking the proper behavior to control and prevent further spread of COVID-19.

Sample  site

Infectious diseases/pathogens

Location

Detection method

References

Untreated wastewater

SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19

Netherlands

RT-qPCR

[5]

Sludge and waste water

SARS-CoV-2

Istanbul, Turkey

RT-qPCR

[6]

Wastewater

SARS-CoV-2

Valencia,Spain

RT-qPCR

[7]

wastewater and river water

SARS-CoV-2

Japan

RT-qPCR

[8]

Untreated wastewater

SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19

Australia

RT-qPCR

[9]

Untreated wastewater

SARS-CoV-2

Italy

RT-qPCR

[10]

wastewater

SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19

Murcia, Spain

RT-qPCR

[11]

Untreated wastewater

norovirus

Valencia, Spain

RT-qPCR

[12]

Untreated wastewater

hepatitis A virus [HAV], and hepatitis E virus)

Ryaverket, Gothenburg, Sweden

RT-qPCR

[13]

sewage and surface water

influenza A (H1N1)

Netherlands

RT-qPCR

[14]

wastewater

Hepatitis E virus (HEV)

Valencian region, Spain

RT-qPCR

[15]

wastewater

hepatitis E (HEV) virus

French island

RT-qPCR

[16]

wastewater

SARS-CoV-2

Massachusetts, USA

RT-qPCR

[17]

wastewater

SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19

India

RT-qPCR

[18]

wastewater

SARS-CoV-2

Padua, Italy

RT-qPCR

[19]

wastewater

SARS-CoV-2

United Arab Emirates

RT-qPCR

[20]

wastewater

SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19

Slovenia

RT-qPCR

[21]

Untreated wastewater

OVID-19

Chile

RT-qPCR

[22]

wastewater

SARS-CoV-2

Stockholm, Sweden

RT-qPCR

[23]

Sludge

SARS-CoV-2

India

RT-qPCR

[24]

wastewater

SARS-CoV-2

China

RT-qPCR

[25]

Untreated wastewater

SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19

Pakistan

RT-qPCR

[26]

wastewater

SARS-CoV-2

Louisiana, USA

RT-qPCR

[27]

Table 1: Details of reported studies wastewater-based epidemiology.

Acknowledgements

This research has been supported by Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences.

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