A Review of Brucellosis: A Recent Major Outbreak in Lebanon
Author(s): Alia Sabra, Bouchra el Masry, Houssam Shaib
Brucella infection remains the world’s most common bacterial zoonosis, with over half a million new cases annually, which brought renewed attention of this neglected disease. This attention is highlighted in this review manuscript, reporting worldwide outbreaks and introducing the 5th major severely prominent worldwide outbreak since 2016 which occurred in Lebanon. In this outbreak, most recent Brucella incidence was mainly observed in the Bekaa governorate with around 70% of the cases reported during the summer and spring. Furthermore, in line with the Lebanese alimentary habits, brucellosis is commonly diagnosed in adults aged between 20 and 60 years old. This paper tailors the first comprehensive One Health approach for the control of Brucellosis in Lebanon. Herein, a broad review to shed light on the complexity of Brucellosis discussing: the etiology; taxonomy; pathogenesis; epidemiology and geographic distribution of the disease; sources and transmission in both animals and humans; clinical manifestation; chemical treatment and its risk; and finally disease prevention.