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Exposure to Conditions of High Concentrations of Indoor Air Pollutants and Prevalence of ARIs in Children under 5 Years of Age, in Ouagadougou/Burkina Faso

Author(s): Kafando Benoit, Savadogo Paul Windinpsidi, Millogo Tieba, Sana Adama, Sanon Sandrine, Kouanda Seni, Sondo Blaise

Exposure to PM2.5 in indoor air can cause respiratory infections. In Ouagadougou, concentrations of PM2.5 produced in households using biomass were found to be very high by WHO standards (25 μg/m3 for 24 hours). The objective of this study was to highlight the effect of exposure to high concentrations of PM2.5 emitted during cooking on the prevalence of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in children under 5 years of age. This was a case-control study that took place from 16 September to 15 October 2018 in sector 15 of Ouagadougou. The sample size was 125 cases and 250 controls. Data collection was carried out using a grid, by two nurses, at the CSPS in sector 15 and in households. The cases were children diagnosed with ARI and the controls were children diagnosed with a diagnosis other than ARI. The data were entered using Epi data software and analyzed using Stata 12. The associations were expressed in Odds ratios and their confidence intervals were estimated at 95%. The results showed that the use of biomass in indoor kitchens in residential buildings was linked to the occurrence of ARI in children under the age of 5. Living in a house with several bedrooms was a protective factor. This would be explained by the better ventilation within these households.

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