Relation of Schizophrenia to Psychosis with Respect to Immune Dysregulation and Its Impact on Memory and Learning
Author(s): Yumna Matanat, Ifrah Amjad Naseer, Arooba Murtaza, Noor Fatima Tareen, Ayesha Khalid, Wareesha Nabeel, Iman Afzal, Samreen Riaz
Since decades, immune dysfunction and the involvement of infectious agents in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia are under greater importance. Schizophrenia is a long lasting state of mental uncertainty that leads to unreliable perception, not suitable actions and feelings, and a sense of mental fragmentation. Patients with schizophrenia show different characteristics of immunological diseases, such as previous infections, anti-inflammatory cytokines or other inflammatory proteins in blood-co-existence of other autoimmune diseases. Its diagnosis is done over a large period of time showing continuous signs of the disturbance that persists for at least six months. Once detected, the psychiatrist diagnosis is made through a series of psychic tests, to avoid the diagnosis of other mental states or diseases. Currently, hundreds of genes across many chromosomes have been identified for schizophrenia, including some genes from the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Genetic studies offer the hope of gaining new insight into the mechanisms that increase a person’s susceptibility to develop schizophrenia, in particular by identifying potential new targets for treatment. But the genetic basis of schizophrenia has proven exceptionally difficult to unravel. Given the rapid evolution of molecular genetic research technologies, breakthrough progress is imminent in the near future. In this paper we will look on the major role of cytokines in schizophrenia, neuro-inflammation and its effects on memory and learning through cytokines, genetic aspects, and correlation between schizophrenia and (autoimmune and atopic diseases) and lastly its treatment with respect to the immune system.