Soil-Transmitted Protozoans and Helminths from Market Gardening Sites of Yaounde, Cameroon
Author(s): Herman Parfait Awono-Ambene, Laurelle Djieukap Njieyap, Patrick Akono Ntonga, Josiane Désirée Etang, Christophe Antonio-Nkondjio, Cyrille Ndo1, Jacques Etame, Flobert Njiokou, Serge H
Background: In Cameroon, the practice of market gardening exposes both the farmers and consumers to a certain number of health-related hazards. Environmental health risks associated to this activity showed that it was responsible for the increased of transmission risk of the human and animal intestinal worms.
Methods: The epidemiology of soil borne diseases associated with urban agriculture was furthermore considered in three market garden sites of the city of Yaounde (Tsinga, Nkolondom, Nkolbisson). From October to December 2016, water and soils from rivers, wells and furrows were analysed for physicochemical characteristics and parasite identification using Kato-Katz and Formol-Ether methods.
Results: Means of water parameters and parasite composition varied per locations and environments in the 82 samples analyzed. Ranges of mean temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity and color of water samples were 25.2-25.5°C (), 6.53-7.01 UC, 308-502 µS.cm-1, 637-1,300 FTU and 2,451-6,422 Co-Pt, respectively. Soil parasites consisted of 3 protozoans (Entamoeba histolytica, Sarcocystis sp. and Giardia intestinalis) and 11 helminths (Fasciola hepatica, Diphyllibotrium latum, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuirus trichiura, Ancylostoma sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma sp., Paragonimus westermanii, Strongyloides stercoralis and Hymenolepis nana).
Conclusion: The presence of viable helminths suggests that harmful soil pathogens such as protozoans and helminths can spread through market gardening. This reminds on the need to find better ways to alleviate the control of intestinal parasitic infections which, nevertheless, are classified as neglected tropical diseases.