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Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML): A systematic Review of Literature and Update

Author(s): Amanda Blackmon, Idoroenyi Amanam, Monzr M. Al Malki, Haris Ali, Salman Otoukesh

Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML) is a hematologic malignancy classified as an overlapping Myelodysplastic Syndrome/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm (MDS/MPN) that can transform into Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) with poor outcomes. CMML has distinctive biologic characteristics that may warrant new therapeutic approaches separate from MDS/MPN. There are limited effective therapies for this disease to prevent progression or transformation into AML, and outcomes are often dismal without allogeneic transplantation, especially in patients with high risk disease. As the genomic landscape of CMML continues to unravel and our prognostic scoring systems improve, individualized treatment approaches considering the entirety of this information will follow. We reviewed the literature on the current diagnostic criteria, subtypes of disease, common cytogenetic/molecular aberrations, scoring systems, current treatment and future directions of therapeutic intervention.

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