Nutritional Composition, Glycaemic Properties and Anti-Diabetic Potentials of Cereal-Based Soy-Fortified Flours for Functional Dough Meal in Diabetic Induced Rats
Author(s): Akinjayeju O, Ijarotimi OS, Awolu OO, Fagbemi TN
This study evaluated glycaemic properties and anti-diabetic potentials of blends of quality-protein-maize (QPM), soy-cake (DSF), millet (WMF) flours for functional dough meal using cassava starch (CST) as binder. Protein and crude fibre contents of blends were optimized using RSM and three blends with highest protein and fibre contents, XYZ=76.03% QPM, 16.76% DSF, 7.21% WMF, 5.00% cassava starch; BCD=72.50% QPM, 2.50% WMF, 25.0% DSF, 2.33% CST; FDT=80.52% QPM, 3.06% WMF, 16.42% DSF, 5.00%), QPM (100% QPM flour) and CER (commercial anti-diabetic flour formulation) were evaluated for glycaemic and biochemical properties and blood glucose-reducing potentials using Wistar rats. Glycaemic index and load were 34-52% and 8-15% respectively, which were lower than 55% and 20% for low glycaemic index and load. Blood glucose-reducing potentials of samples were in ascending order of BCD (57.5%) < FDT (70%) < XYZ (75%), with samples FDT and XYZ higher than 62.5% for sample STD (rats treated with synthetic anti-diabetic agent-Glibenclamide). Haematological indices, PVC, Hb, WBC and RBC, of rats fed on samples were 46.35-51.25%, 13.40-18.10g/L, 8.30-10.80 (x10/mm3) and 4.19-6.94 (x106) respectively, while kidney and liver functionality indices, aspartate amino transferases (AST), alanine amino transferases (ALT) and alkaline phosphate (ALP) were 39.5-43.00 µ/L, 48.50-55.50 µ/L and 92.80-104.20 µ/L, within normal ranges of 7-56µ/L, 45.7-80.8µ/L and 41-133 U/L, respectively. AST:ALT ratios were within standard value of <1. This study established that experimental samples, particularly XYZ, had low glycaemic properties, high anti-diabetic potentials, making them suitable for diabetes patients.