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Modulation of Inflammatory Response by Electromagnetic Field Stimulation in Traumatic Brain Injury in Yucatan Swine

Author(s): Yssel Mendoza-Mari, Vikrant Rai, Mohamed M. Radwan, James Brazdzionis, David A Connett, Dan E Miulli, and Devendra K Agrawal

Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide and represents a high economic burden for families and national health systems. After mechanical impact to the head, the first stage of the damage comprising edema, physical damage, and cell loss gives rise to a second phase characterized by glial activation, increased oxidative stress and excitotoxicity, mitochondrial damage, and exacerbated neuroinflammatory state, among other molecular calamities. Inflammation strongly influences the molecular events involved in the pathogenesis of TBI. Therefore, several components of the inflammatory cascade have been targeted in experimental therapies. Application of Electromagnetic Field (EMF) stimulation has been found to be effective in some inflammatory conditions. However, its effect in the neuronal recovery after TBI is not known. In this pilot study, Yucatan miniswine were subjected to TBI using controlled cortical impact approach. EMF stimulation via a helmet was applied immediately or two days after mechanical impact. Three weeks later, inflammatory markers were assessed in the brain tissues of injured and contralateral non-injured areas of control and EMF-treated animals by histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry, RT-qPCR, Western blot, and ELISA. Our results revealed that EMF stimulation induced beneficial effect with the preservation of neuronal tissue morphology as well as the reduction of inflammatory markers at the transcriptional and translational levels. Immediate EMF application showed better resolution of inflammation. Although further studies are warranted, our findings contribute to the notion that EMF stimulation could be an effective therapeutic approach in TBI patients.

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Impact Factor: * 4.2

CiteScore: 2.9

Acceptance Rate: 11.01%

Time to first decision: 10.4 days

Time from article received to acceptance: 2-3 weeks

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