FDA-Approved Excipient N, N-Dimethylacetamide Attenuates Inflammatory Bowel Disease in In Vitro and In Vivo Models
Author(s): Jagadish B Koya, Tong Shen, Geming Lu, Alex Gauthier, Lin Mantell, Charles R Ashby Jr, Sandra E. Reznik
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects almost 7 million people worldwide and is increasing in incidence. While the precise pathogenesis of IBD remains unknown, the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines play a central role. We have previously found that N, N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), a widely used non-toxic drug excipient, suppresses cytokine and chemokine secretion in vitro and prevents inflammation-induced preterm birth in vivo. Using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), we tested whether DMA attenuates cytokine and chemokine secretion from LPS- or TNFα-stimulated human intestinal epithelial cells and human monocytes and HMGB1 release from RAW 264.7 cells. To test our hypothesis that the mechanism of DMA’s effects in in vitro and in vivo models of IBD is inhibition of the NF-kB pathway, we used western blotting to track levels of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) inhibitory molecule I kappa B alpha (IkBα) in THP-1 human monocytes in the absence or presence of DMA. Finally, we induced colitis in C57Bl/6 mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and then tested whether i.p injections of DMA at 2.1 g/kg/day attenuates clinical and histopathologic signs of colitis. DMA attenuated cytokine and chemokine release from human intestinal epithelial cells and human monocytes and HMGB1 release from RAW 264.7 cells. Importantly, DMA prevented degradation of IkBα in THP-1 cells, thereby suggesting one mechanism for DMA’s effects. Finally, we show here, for the first time, that DMA attenuates clinical and histologic features of DSS-induced colitis. Based on these data, DMA should be further explored in preclinical and clinical trials for its potential as novel drug therapy for IBD.