Changes in D-dimer, Ferritin, and Fibrinogen in Healthy Smokers and Nonsmokers during the Covid-19 outbreak
Author(s): Elif Menek?e, Muhammed Emin Düz
Objective: The Covid-19 outbreak has altered our perspective on evaluating test markers in inflammatory diseases. Furthermore, natural alterations and baseline inflammatory responses, such as those caused by smoking, need a more exact interpretation of these clinical features. In this context, the aim of the study is to determine the changes in smokers and non-smokers in the specified parameters and to have a more detailed idea about the relevant parameters of Covid-19 disease.
Material and Methods: Blood samples were taken from 30 healthy volunteers on the first, third, and fifth days, 15 of whom were smokers, and 15 of whom were nonsmokers. Multiple D-dimer, ferritin, and fibrinogen tests were performed with repeated readings. After ensuring normality and homogeneity of the data and removing outliers, differences among groups were examined using the Student's t-test. A one-way ANOVA test was used to examine fluctuations over time.
Results: Smokers had significantly higher levels of d-dimer on the first day and fibrinogen on the third and fifth days than nonsmokers (p=0.02, p=0.047, and p=0.039, respectively). The ANOVA test discovered statistically significant distinctions in all metrics between participants and dates (p<0.001).
Conclusions: As a result of smoking, unexpected changes were detected in d-dimer, ferritin, and fibrinogen compared to non-smokers. According to these results, it was determined that smoking has a negative effect on inflammatory markers. When interpreting laboratory results in smokers with Covid-19 disease and similar diseases, it should be kept in mind that the specified parameters may vary depending on factors other than the disease.