Heterogeneous Population of Immune cells Associated with Early Thrombosis in Arteriovenous Fistula
Author(s): Gunimat Samra, Vikrant Rai, Devendra K. Agrawal
End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality in the practice of modern medicine. Advances in medicine have elongated the average life span and subsequently made chronic diseases prevalent. Hemodialysis is the main treatment that is used to treat ESRD and is a clinical procedure that is being re-imagined with novel approaches to improve patient and clinic practicality and effectiveness. Arteriovenous Fistulas (AVF) are now used in place of catheters due to their higher success and lower co-morbidities. The main drawback of AVF is the time gap that is needed from the surgical creation of AVF to its use. During this time, the AVF is susceptible to thrombosis and occlusion rendering the fistula ineffective for treatment. Immune cells play a major role in vascular pathologies and macrophages, dendritic cells, and T-regulatory cells are the main cells seen during the inflammatory and anti-inflammatory phases. However, the role of immune response and immune cells in AVF maturation is poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the immune response and immune cell expression in femoral vessels after AVF creation in a miniswine model of AVF using immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR. The results of this study revealed an increased expression of immune cells in AVF vessels and suggest an association of immune response with AVF creation and maturation.