Metabolic Impact of Immune-Suppressor Cells in Cancer Patients
Author(s): Masahiko Shibata, Atsushi Inukai, Daigo Yoshimori, Mai Ashizawa, Takahiro Nakajima, Makoto Takada, Takashi Yazawa, Kousaku Mimura, Norio Inoue, Takafumi Watanabe, Kazunos
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are not equally effective for all patients, regardless type of cancer. Immune-suppressor cells, including regulatory T (Treg) cells, tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and their metabolic pathways in the tumor microenvironment (TME) play important roles in resistance to ICIs. Although Treg cells, TAMs and MDSCs play significant roles in immunosuppression in the TME, these cells are very important in the orchestration of metabolism such as angiogenesis and production of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and nitric oxide (NO) towards tumor escape, progression and expansion. Cancer immunotherapies tailored with metabolic characterizations such as parameters of angiogenesis, inflammation or obesity may be needed for the establishment of a successful treatment modality in the immunotherapy era.